If you are interested in blogging or want to promote your book next year, please contact E. B. Davis at writerswhokill@gmail.com

Our March author interviews: Karen Pullen (3/1), Lowcountry Crime authors: Tina Whittle, Polly Iyer, Jonathan M. Bryant, and James M. Jackson (3/8), Annette Dashofy (3/15), Edith Maxwell (3/22) and Barb Ross (3/29).

Saturday Guest Bloggers in March: Maris Soule (3/4), and Virginia Mackey (3/11). WWK Saturday bloggers write on 3/18--Margaret S. Hamilton and on 3/25--Kait Carson.

Julie Tollefson won the Mystery Writers of America Midwest Chapter's Holton Award for best unpublished manuscript (member category) for her work in progress, In The Shadows. Big news for a new year. Congratulations, Julie.

Congratulations to our writers for the following publications:

Warren Bull's new Lincoln mystery, Abraham Lincoln In Court & Campaign has been released. Look for the Kindle version on February 3.

Shari Randall's "Pets" will be included in Chesapeake Crimes: Fur, Feathers, and Felonies anthology, which will be published in 2018. In the same anthology "Rasputin," KM Rockwood's short story, will also be published.

Margaret S. Hamilton's short story, "Once a Kappa" was published as a finalist in the Southern Writer's Magazine annual short story contest issue. Mysterical-E published her "Double Crust Corpse" in the Fall 2016 issue. "Baby Killer" will appear in the 2017 solar eclipse anthology Day of the Dark to be published this summer prior to the eclipse in August.

Linda Rodriquez has two pending book publications. Plotting the Character-Driven Novel will be released by Scapegoat Press on November 29th. Every Family Doubt, the fourth Skeet Bannion mystery, is scheduled for release on June, 13, 2017. Look for E. B. Davis's interview with Linda here in June!

Cross Genre Publications anthology, Hidden Youth, will contain Warren Bull's "The Girl, The Devil, and The Coal Mine." The anthology will be released in late November 2016. The We've Been Trumped anthology released by Dark House Press on September 28th contains Warren Bull's "The Wall" short story and KM Rockwood's "A Phone Call to the White House." KM writes under the name Pat Anne Sirs for this volume.

James M. Jackson's 4th book in the Seamus McCree series, Doubtful Relations, is now available. His novella "Low Tide at Tybee" appears February 7 as part of Lowcountry Crimes: Four Novellas, which is available for pre-order.

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Saturday, August 31, 2013

WRITING THE MYSTERY SHORT STORY: ART TAYLOR'S ANSWERS TO OUR SURVEY





In preparing this series, I solicited answers to ten survey questions from members of the Writers Who Kill blog and from authors who are well-known for their wonderful mystery short stories. These authors have been so generous, detailed, and insightful in sharing their views and providing excellent information that I wanted the WWK readers to have the full benefit of their replies.

Today, Art Taylor offers his perspective.

Art Taylor’s short stories have appeared in the anthology Chesapeake Crimes: This Job Is Murder; in magazines including Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine, Barrelhouse, Needle: A Magazine of Noir, and North American Review; and online at PANK, Plots With Guns, Prick of the Spindle, and SmokeLong Quarterly. He is an Agatha Award finalist and a three-time winner of the Derringer Award. “When Duty Calls,” from the Chesapeake Crimes anthology, earned Art his third Derringer in three years (2013, Best Long Story) and was also a finalist for this year’s Agatha Awards; it’s currently nominated for a Macavity.

Art teaches creative writing, composition, and literature at George Mason University in Fairfax, VA, and helps to coordinate marketing for the annual Fall for the Book Festival, serving the DC region. (For more information, please check out the website at: www.fallforthebook.org) While the festival covers a lot of different subject matters and genres of writing, Art has been pleased to help build some partnerships between the festival and his local chapter of Mystery Writers of America. This year’s festival will feature a panel with Ellen Crosby, Allison Leotta, Brad Parks, and David O. Stewart.

In addition, Art is a regular reviewer for the Washington Post Book World, concentrating on mysteries and thrillers, and contributes frequently to Mystery Scene Magazine. Art graduated from Yale with a degree in American Studies and earned both an M.A. in English from North Carolina State University and an MFA in Creative Writing (Fiction) from George Mason University. His website is: www.arttaylorwriter.com.

Art, thank you for being with us and taking the time to answer the survey questions.

How has being part of a short story writing community influenced your writing?

One of the great things about the mystery community is that it boasts so many strong short story writers—writers working across such a diverse range of subject matters and approaches and tones, etc. A couple of years ago, I had the privilege of being one of the Edgar judges in the short story category, and reading all of the stories submitted over the course of that year—more than 700 of them, I recall—offered such an education about the range and flexibility of the genre, and it ultimately helped me (I hope) to strengthen my own writing, refine my own approach to the form. That community is also very close, especially now that so many of us are connected online—not just sometimes reading each other’s stories in online publications but also connecting on Facebook and Twitter, keeping up with new publications, awards announcements, and more. The support and feedback from friends and fellow writers has been tremendously encouraging—and reading their fine stories also forces me to try to keep my game strong as well!
 
What is your thought process when you submit or select stories for a themed anthology?

My stories often seem to evolve slowly from ideas or images—the imagination playing around with things first, rather than a plot presenting itself to me—so calls for submissions from themed anthologies are often lots of fun. I like taking a suggestion like that and tinkering with it in my mind, thinking about some new direction with it, for example, or trying to figure out where my own interests and preoccupations might intersect with that editor’s interests and ideas. It’s fun!

When do you know an idea is suited for a short story instead of a longer work?

I think my imagination basically gears primarily toward shorter works—where I keep the whole thing in my mind, let it slowly percolate up there. While I’ve tried writing a couple of novels, I haven’t been very successful with them. I’m not very good (so far) at keeping the proper pacing and the extended conflict—at picturing clearly that bigger narrative arc—for a longer work.

Have you written “flash fiction”? What do you think of flash fiction as a literary form?

I love flash fiction! I think it’s a little tougher in the mystery field—since mysteries are so often driven by plot and flash fiction is often capturing a moment rather than an extended narrative. But as a form itself, I think it’s both a challenge to write and, when done well, such a joy to read. Short stories in general are all about cutting away everything that isn’t necessary to the story, trimming and trimming and trimming, and the best flash fiction seems to be the finest distillation of that process.

How many characters can be in a short story?

I usually end up with two or three major characters, focusing on relationships between them, though frequently there are other minor characters who play some kind of role. But two or three main players—that’s enough for me.

How long have you been writing short stories?

I began writing short stories in high school, and I was thrilled to have my first stories published in the school’s literary magazine. But for many years, I wasn’t diligent or focused about my writing—working steadily for short bursts and then not at all for other long stretches. Even after my first mystery story was published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine back in 1996 and I felt like I’d really begun something exciting, my next attempts at short stories faltered and failed, and it was several years before I found my footing again. Now I know that the key is to write early and write often—every day, if possible (and even with that, I’m still a slow writer).

What is good/bad about the current short story market?

The proliferation of online magazines and journals offers today’s short story writers not just more potential markets but also a potentially wider readership, greater accessibility to that reader, and the opportunity for more immediate feedback. That’s a real bonus, not just for beginning writers but for established ones too.

On the flipside, sometimes those online publications are short-lived, despite the best of intentions. And it would always be nice to have more print publications to read and submit to as well, of course. There’s such great talent out there, and always a need for more venues to showcase it.

Should an unpublished author self-publish short stories?

While I know there’s a lure to the idea of getting a story collection or even a single story out there in an e-book or e-short format—bypassing the submission/acceptance/editorial process that can be lengthy at best (or quick with rejection at worst)—I do believe that the benefits of the latter outweigh the possibilities of the former. Many self-published authors are indeed putting their work through rigorous editing—both personal scrutiny and feedback from writing groups or freelance editors or whatever—but many aren’t, and I think there’s a lot to learn from going through that process. It’s not just that editors and publishers are gatekeepers, but they’re also mentors to writers and guides to the readers—profitable relationships in each direction there, I think.

The reason I write short stories is:

twofold. First, I love the economy and efficiency of the form. There’s something wonderful about a tense little tale, tightly told—a complete experience in a single sitting—and I hope to deliver that sense of wonder to one of my own readers too. Second, the short story form seems to fit me—the way I think, the way I write, the way my schedule is these days (teaching, being a new dad, etc.). It not just a fondness for the form; it’s also just a good fit. 

The most important aspect of writing a mystery short story is:

… well, for me, I like to make sure that all of the elements work on more than one level and that all the pieces interweave nicely throughout. That doesn’t mean that everything has to be tied up in a happy ending or even that some parts of the story can’t be left unexplained, nagging, restless. But I like the sense of both tight complexity and dense texture that a good short story can offer.

Again, thanks for joining us and providing us with such terrific insight, Art. Best wishes for your continuing success.

Friday, August 30, 2013

60 Second Adventure Movies


60 Second Adventure Movies

I don’t drink alcohol.  It does not mix well with my cancer medications. Except for one year in college I hardly ever drank to the point on inebriation.  Drinking only made me sleepy and sloppy.
On the other hand I do enjoy good writing, and Jameson Whiskey has produced a series of television ads labeled John Jameson legends. In 60 seconds or less the watcher experiences an entire humorous and yet thrilling adventure. 

The first one I remember started when a barrel of Jameson’s Whiskey washed overboard off a ship in a storm.  The fearless hero kissed his wife and leapt over board to rescue it.  A giant octopus intervened but John Jameson won in the end.

A second commercial described how the Hawk of Ackle first carried off the miller’s daughter and then stole a barrel of Jameson’s whiskey.  The hero cleverly tricked the hawk and returned with the whiskey and the woman along with the defeated raptor.

A third commercial showed a runaway train with screaming passengers and, critically, a rail car loaded with, you guessed it, barrels of Jameson’s Whiskey.  Jameson finished his breakfast before jumping onto the engine from his horse. He tossed the engineer off the train and onto his horse.  Then he uncoupled the cars with whiskey and screaming passengers.  His actions unexpectedly saved Ireland from an unseen threat. 

I’ve tried to keep all spoilers from my description so if you haven’t seen the commercials, there will still be surprises in each one. 

The ads present short lessons in writing.  Start when the action is hot.  When you hero or heroine gets into trouble heap more trouble upon his or her head.  Humor and surprise increase your audience’s enjoyment.  Create a satisfying ending. Then stop.

What commercials have you seen that have lessons in writing?

Thursday, August 29, 2013

THE LIGHT BETWEEN OCEANS




Recently my Third Thursday Book Club read The Light Between Oceans by M.L. Stedman. Every one of our members enjoyed the book and the discussion went on for well over an hour and could have continued because of the very richness of this tale.

The reviews were many and good for this debut novel, too. Stedman is a native of Australia now living in London. She knows this land of which she writes and makes it real to us with her descriptions. I liked the book so much that I wanted to share it with my Red Read Robin Book Club so I chose it for our meeting tonight at my house with dinner and wine followed by a discussion of the book. I have a feeling it will also go on for some time.

The blurb at the back reads: “After four harrowing years on the Western Front, Tom Sherbourne returns to Australia and takes a job as the lighthouse keeper at Janus Rock, nearly half a day’s journey from the coast. To this isolated island, where the supply boat comes once a season, Tom brings a young, bold and loving wife, Isabel. Years later, after two miscarriages and one stillbirth, the grieving Isabel hears a baby’s cries on the wind. A boat has washed up onshore carrying a dead man and a living baby.

Tom, who keeps meticulous records and whose moral principles have withstood a horrific war, wants to report the man and infant immediately. But Isabel insists the baby is a “gift from God,” and against Tom’s judgment, they claim her as their own and name her Lucy. When she is two, Tom and Isabel return to the mainland and are reminded that there are other people in the world. Their choice has devastated one of them.”

The book begins with the scene where the baby is discovered almost six years after chapter one.
It starts with:  "On the day of the miracle, Isabel was kneeling at the cliff’s edge, tending the small, newly made driftwood cross. A single fat cloud snailed across the late-April sky, which stretched above the island in a mirror of the ocean below. Isabel sprinkled more water and patted down the soil around the rosemary bush she had just planted. ‘. . . and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil,’ she whispered.”

It was just after this when she hears a baby’s cry and they find the baby. It wasn’t until I started reading it for the second time that I realized how important that part of The Lord’s Prayer was to the theme of the whole story.

Last week I mentioned the writing advice Stuart Woods gave to a beginning writer – “There are no rules except those you create page by page.”  M. L. Stedman is a debut writer, and there was one thing I noticed in her writing that probably many writers would think is unacceptable. She would occasionally go from the traditional third person past tense to a passage of third person present tense. However, not one person in my other book club noticed this, and I’m curious to see if anyone in this book club will have noticed it, either. If I had more time to study each of these passages I might be able to figure out her purpose, but I don’t and it didn’t really bother me beyond being curious about it. In my opinion, it’s more about telling a good story, and if a writer does that, he/she can bend the rules here and there.

I’m not going to list all twenty-five of the excellent reviews both on the back and inside, but here are a few:

“A beautifully delineated tale of love and loss, right and wrong, and what we will do for the happiness of those most dear.” – The Boston Globe

“Told with the authoritative simplicity of a fable . . . Stedman’s intricate descriptions of the craggy Australian coastline and her easy mastery of an old-time provincial vernacular are engrossing. As the couple at the lighthouse are drawn into an increasingly tragic set of consequences, these remote, strange lives are rendered immediate and familiar.” – The New Yorker


“Haunting . . . Stedman draws the reader into her emotionally complex story right from the beginning, with lush descriptions of this savage and beautiful landscape, and vivid characters with whom we can readily empathize. Hers is a stunning and memorable debut.” - Booklist

One of the things I enjoy about book clubs in addition to being able to discuss a book we've all read, is discovering new books I may never have heard of. In most cases, I'm glad I had the opportunity to read the book.

Have you ever belonged to a book club? If you haven't, do you think you'd like to - even if they don't serve wine like the one I'm having this evening?
             

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

WRITING THE MYSTERY SHORT STORY: B.K. STEVENS’ ANSWERS TO OUR SURVEY



In preparing this series, I solicited answers to ten survey questions from members of the Writers Who Kill blog and from authors who are well-known for their wonderful mystery short stories. These authors have been so generous, detailed, and insightful in sharing their views and providing excellent information that I wanted the WWK readers to have the full benefit of their replies.

Today, B.K. Stevens offers her perspective.

B.K. (Bonnie) Stevens has published over forty short stories, most of them in Alfred Hitchcock’s Mystery Magazine. A 2012 story, “Thea’s First Husband” was nominated for an Agatha and has now been nominated for a Macavity as well.  One Shot, a satirical e-novella from Untreed Reads, takes on issues ranging from gun control to reality shows. Bonnie’s awards include a 2010 Derringer from the Short Mystery Fiction Society and first place in a suspense-writing contest judged by Mary Higgins Clark. B.K. and her husband, Dennis, live in Virginia. Bonnie has a bachelor’s degree (Kenyon College) and a Ph.D. (Boston College), both in English. Her website is: http://www.bkstevensmysteries.com.

Bonnie, thank you for being with us and taking the time to answer the survey questions.

How has being part of a short story writing community influenced your writing?

I’ve received a lot of support and encouragement from short-story writers I’ve gotten to know over the years. I also enjoy the Short Mystery Fiction Society, an online discussion group. The exchanges can get contentious, but they’re usually lively, and I’ve learned a lot about writing, markets, and authors I want to start reading. I’ve also sometimes turned to the group with a question—e.g., if a character does X, what laws would he or she be breaking?—and gotten some helpful responses.

What is your thought process when you submit or select stories for a themed anthology?

I’ve never edited an anthology, so I can’t comment on the selection process. [Note: Bonnie will soon have the opportunity of participating in the selection process when she serves as a judge for the new anthology from the Chesapeake Chapter of Sisters in Crime, Storm Warning!] I’ve published just one story in a themed anthology—“No Good Deed,” in To Hell in a Fast Car, edited by John L. French and published by Dark Quest Books. John provided the theme for the anthology: Sometimes, people headed for disaster are unable or unwilling to turn back, even though they may know things can’t end well. When he invited members of our Mystery Writers of America chapter to submit stories, I thought of an idea I’d jotted down in a notebook many years ago but never used. John’s theme gave the idea the structure it needed to become a story.

When do you know an idea is suited for a short story instead of a longer work?

Sometimes, it’s hard to tell. Years ago, after reading one of my Hitchcock stories, my mother said, “Why didn’t you save that idea for a novel? You could have done a lot more with it.” Too late, I realized she was right. I still think about it; I may yet do it. Now that it’s been so long since the story was published, Hitchcock probably wouldn’t mind—and no one outside my family is likely to remember how the story ends.

Other times, an idea is clearly right for a short story and wrong for a novel. For example, the protagonist of a 2012 Hitchcock story, “Thea’s First Husband,” is too dim and too passive to be the protagonist of a novel. We want the protagonists of mystery novels to be smart, to figure things out, to take decisive actions. Thea just drifts along, never really understanding what’s happening or why, feeling sorry for herself but not taking action to solve her problems. She’s not an evil person and doesn’t want to harm anyone, but even when she knows what she should do, she lacks the courage and energy to do it. I think Thea’s story is worth telling—lots of bad things happen because basically decent people fail to do the right thing, because they step back and allow actively evil people to determine the course of events—but I wouldn’t expect readers to put up with her for more than thirty pages or so. (Not mystery readers, at least—Thea might be a suitable protagonist for a literary novel, but we mystery readers have higher standards.) Short stories allow writers to explore people and situations that wouldn’t work in novels but are still important, still compelling.
  
Have you written “flash fiction”? What do you think of flash fiction as a literary form?

Yes, I’ve written some flash fiction for Woman’s World. Half a dozen stories were published in the 80s and 90s (some of those might be too long to be considered flash fiction by current definitions). One story was published this June (that one’s definitely flash fiction—under 700 words).
Every form of writing offers its own challenges and satisfactions. Obviously, flash fiction doesn’t allow writers as much creative liberty as most other forms of writing do. But there are compensations. In some ways, I think, writing flash fiction is comparable to writing a limerick or even (at the risk of sounding pretentious) a sonnet. The writer has to accomplish a lot in a few words, and there may be—especially if one is writing for a specific market such as Woman’s World—a lot of rules. But if one pulls it off, it feels pretty good. It’s not comparable to writing War and Peace or Hamlet, but it can still be satisfying. And if readers are entertained, if they spend two or three minutes of their day using their minds to solve a well-constructed puzzle, instead of passively absorbing yet another pointless YouTube video or yet another meaningless reality show—well, I’ve yet to figure out what’s wrong with that.

I can’t comment on flash fiction without mentioning John Floyd. Flash fiction is not by any means the only thing John does well. He excels at many kinds of fiction; to appreciate the range of his talents, one has to read his longer works as well. But I can’t think of anyone who does a better job of creating intriguing situations, devising ingenious and satisfying puzzles, and developing vivid, distinctive characters in a limited space. That’s just one of John’s many accomplishments, but it’s one worth mentioning.

How many characters can be in a short story?

I think that depends, in part, on the length of the story, and on the type of story. In a flash fiction whodunit, for example, the limit is probably four or five—a victim, a detective or detective team, two or possibly three suspects. In a near-novella whodunit, the number of suspects might be increased to four or five. The crucial thing, I think, is to make sure there’s time to develop all characters fully enough to make each one distinct and memorable. Obviously, we expect fuller character development in a longer story than in a shorter one. Regardless of the length, however, readers should at least be able to keep the characters straight. I’ve read longer short mysteries that piled on the suspects, most of whom contributed nothing to the mystery and apparently existed only to distract readers. No suspects are developed in any depth, and solving the mystery may hinge on spotting the one truly significant clue hidden under a mass of mere red herrings. When I’m reading a whodunit, I don’t mind if I figure out who the killer is; that just makes me feel clever. But I get annoyed when the killer’s name is revealed and I have to look back to the beginning of the story to figure out who he or she is. Keeping the number of suspects manageable is part of playing fair with the reader.

In mystery stories that aren’t whodunits, the number of characters is more flexible. Again, though, there shouldn’t be so many that readers need a chart to keep track of them.

How long have you been writing short stories?

Centuries ago, when I belonged to the Pencil Pushers Club at Herbert Hoover Junior High School in Buffalo, New York, I wrote a short story just about every week. Those stories were probably nibbled to shreds by squirrels in my parents’ attic—thank goodness. The creative writing club at my high school was too resolutely literary for my taste, so I stopped writing stories. College, marriage, graduate school, teaching, and parenting dominated my time and attention for many years. But I loved mysteries—especially Dorothy Sayers—and had, for a long time, toyed with one idea for a mystery novel. When a miscarriage and my father’s early, sudden death from a stroke left me feeling depressed and restless, I probably needed therapy. Since I couldn’t afford it, I decided to distract myself from sadness by finally writing that novel. Nobody wanted to publish it (now, I understand why). But writing was still good therapy—I think it was healthy to focus on problems other than my own. One night in 1986, when my husband and I went for a walk, I picked up a copy of Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine (I wish it had been Alfred Hitchcock’s Mystery Magazine, but it wasn’t), read a mesmerizing story by Clark Howard, and decided to give short stories another try. After three false starts, “True Detective” was published in AHMM in June, 1988.

What is good/bad about the current short story market?

I’m no expert on markets, but I’ll share some general impressions. There seem to be more markets for short-story writers these days—mostly online markets, mostly non-paying ones. If I were starting out now, I’d probably try to take advantage of some of these markets, just to get my name out in public and to get my stories read. But writing is hard work, and writers should get paid for it. New writers should think carefully about how much of their work they’re willing to give away. A few stories, sure—but maybe not much more than that, maybe not without at least some possibility of payment in the future. If you think of writing as a hobby, you might be willing to work for nothing. If you want to make writing your livelihood (or at least a portion of it), you might want to examine your options more carefully. And, luckily, there are still a handful of mystery magazines that pay writers professional rates.

Should an unpublished author self-publish short stories?

Again, I’m no expert on markets; again, the answer to this question probably depends, at least in part, on whether one sees writing as a hobby or as a possible livelihood—or, to be more realistic, as a partial livelihood. Some writers apparently do well by self-publishing their stories, but my guess is that most writers who aren’t already well known don’t turn much of a profit. I’d also guess that one has to devote a lot of time to promotion in order to make self-publishing successful. Before deciding to self-publish, writers should probably ask themselves how much time they’re willing to spend promotion and how much time they want to save for writing.

The reason I write short stories is:

that I enjoy writing them, I think I’m reasonably competent at it, and I’ve had good luck getting them published. (After all, we write, at least in part, because we want to reach readers, so it’s natural to focus on the kinds of writing that allow us to do that.) Short stories offer writers opportunities to explore characters and situations that might not work in novels (cf. my comments about “Thea’s First Husband”). They also give us opportunities to explore lots of different characters and situations, and that keeps things interesting for the writer. Edgar Allan Poe argues that works of fiction have their most powerful impact when they’re short enough to be read in one sitting. Only then, he says, can the writer draw the reader in fully, blocking out all the distractions of the everyday world and achieving full “unity of effect or impression.” I wouldn’t go as far as Poe does—novels can draw us in effectively, too, even if readers have to fix dinner and pay bills between chapters—but he makes a valuable point by drawing our attention to one of the short story’s distinct strengths. If we follow his advice about focusing on unity of effect, we may give our short stories a concentrated, powerful impact novelists would envy.

I don’t write short stories because they’re easy to write. They are not, at least not for me. I work hard at my short stories and spend a lot of time on them. Two or three times, I’ve gotten an idea for a short story and pounded out a first draft quickly—but that’s the exception, not the rule, and even then that first draft has required many hours (or, usually, days or weeks) of revision. Right now, for example, I’ve got twenty-three pages of single-spaced notes on a story idea; I like the characters, but I’m still not satisfied with the plot, so I’ll have to take more notes before I can even think about starting to draft. If I ever work the plot problems out (and I’m not sure I will), the first draft will probably take me a long time to write, and then I’ll have to cut, revise, and cut and revise some more. Usually, the notes I take before starting to write a story are much longer than the story itself. Sometimes, I’ve heard writers say, “Oh, short stories are such a relaxing break from the hard work of writing novels—I can crank one out in just a few hours.” I don’t think of short stories that way. If I want a story to be as good as I can make it, I have to give it a lot of thought, a lot of effort, a lot of time.

The most important aspect of writing a mystery short story is:

capturing and keeping the reader’s interest. Mystery short stories can do many other things, too—but if we can’t capture and keep the reader’s interest, nothing else we may try to do matters, because nobody will be reading it. Mystery short stories can comment (preferably subtly and indirectly) on social issues; they can explore human personality and motivations; they can affirm the importance of uncovering truth and achieving justice, however elusive truth and justice might be; they can affirm the existence of a rational universe by insisting that we can use our minds to make sense of evidence that seems, at first, contradictory and impenetrable. Short stories can accomplish big things. As Flannery O’Connor says, “Being short does not mean being slight. A short story should be long in depth and should give us an experience of meaning.” But if we can’t create suspenseful plots and engaging characters that make readers keep turning pages, we can’t share the insights and convictions that mean so much to us.

Again, thanks for joining us and providing us with such terrific insight, Bonnie. Best wishes for your continuing success.